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How Do Doctors Use Information From MRD Testing in Myeloma?

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Published on May 13, 2019

Minimal residual disease (MRD) testing can provide information related to multiple myeloma treatment response and relapse detection. How are the results used? When should myeloma patients consider an MRD test? Myeloma experts Dr. Elisabet Manasanch and Tiffany Richards, both from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, discuss FDA-approved methods for MRD testing, optimal timing and what value the results can bring to myeloma care. Patient advocate Cherie Rineker also shares what role MRD testing has played on her myeloma journey. Watch now to find out more about MRD testing in multiple myeloma.

This is a Patient Empowerment Network program produced by Patient Power in partnership with The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. We thank AbbVie, Inc., Celgene Corporation, and Sanofi for their support. These organizations have no editorial control.



The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center


The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Transcript | How Do Doctors Use Information From MRD Testing in Myeloma?

Please remember the opinions expressed on Patient Power are not necessarily the views of our sponsors, contributors, partners or Patient Power. Our discussions are not a substitute for seeking medical advice or care from your own doctor. That’s how you’ll get care that’s most appropriate for you.

Andrew Schorr:                     

How will knowing disease state or using MRD measurement technology change treatment plans? So, doctor, I just want to understand. So, what do you do with the information? So, somebody says what’s the prognosis, is it changing what treatment you use or when, based on the MRD results?

Dr. Manasanch:          

We don’t have any evidence to change treatments. So, these are all questions that need to be answered, in the next few years. So, the question of, if you are in complete remission, MRD-negative, and then, you get another test done, and you go from negative to positive, do we start treatment, if you are not on treatment? If you were on treatment, do we switch it? All of those things, and how often do we test for it. We don’t have an answer for those questions. We really don’t have a guidance for that. So, it’s really just, when we test for it here, it’s just so because the technology is available.

And we know that it’s prognostic. So, we know that patients that are negative, they seem to do better. So, it’s nice to have the information, but there’s not much that we can do with it, right now, except just make someone happy telling them this is already negative. But there’s not much that you can do with information. And that’s why Tiffany was saying, Dr. Weber, ewe don’t do it, unlesswe test after treatment.

And every time after treatment, we test for it. And if it’s negative, okay, we know that’s the best level of remission that we have. But what does it mean, in terms of treatment? We don’t know that. So, a lot of centers don’t even do MRD.

Andrew Schorr:                     

Okay. Yeah. So, that’s my next question. So, we have people all over the world watching. So, Cherie has been a patient of MD Anderson. She also went over to Nashville. They have a big center there. These are major centers. But a lot of people are treated at not such a good place or maybe not even with a hematologist/oncologist who has a big myeloma practice. And we’re talking about very sophisticated testing. We’re talking about 10 to the 5, 10 to the 6, super sensitive testing. And you’re saying well, what would we do differently?

So, should people watching Tiffany? If somebody said to you, I live somewhere else in Texas, but I come to MD Andersonbut should the local level, in Lubbock or someplace, should I be lobbying for MRD testing? Tiffany, what do you say? I want to get the doctor’s response, too.

Tiffany Richards:                      

That’s a good question. It’s also a hard question because, for me, I always go back to, if you have a test, is it going to change what you’re doing? And while MRD status is good to know, I always also go to the flipside. If a patient is told they’re MRD positive, how are they going to feel, after that result. And then, if they’re in a community practice where they’re seeing an oncologist who maybe doesn’t see a lot of myeloma, and now, you have this patient who feels totally deflated because they’re MRD-positive.

They go and they look on the internet. And they see, oh, my gosh, my prognosis is worse. And so, what happens, in that scenario? And so, I feel like we shouldn’t leave patients out there who are going to be feeling deflated, without being able to pick them back up and give them hope. And if they’re not in a place where that can occur, then, maybe it’s better not to do the testing. But, again, I think the patient’s situation and having the patient have that discussion with the oncologist is important. But I certain feel like a patient should be able to also have hope, if they do come back MRD-positive.

Andrew Schorr:                     

Doctor, what do you say? Again, you do MRD testing, at certain points, becauseand you’re also doing research with your colleagues around the world trying to figure out where does it fit in, and what do you do about it.

But that’s not always happening, at the community centers. And they’re not doing that research. So, just for our worldwide audience now, what do you want to say about MRD testing? And I’ll just say for me, and I think, Cherie, you agreed, I want to know, personally.

Cherie Rineker:                        


Dr. Manasanch:          

Most patients, when given the option, they prefer to know. I think, for patients though, one thing that we try to have a community of oncologists and practices. And our own techs actually send their samples here, so we test them here. And it just turned out to be something that was logistically not feasible to do. So, we’ve tried to do this, so that people that cannot come here, their oncologist can send the samples. And the physicians will be happy to do it. But, in terms of our lab, the volume and all of this, it’s just not practical.

So, this is not something that we could achieve. Now, for the community oncologists, community oncologists, usually, they don’t test. They don’t do advanced flow cytometry. So, minimal residual disease testing requires advanced flow cytometry, which is like a new generation where you have some machines that can test many cells, at the same time. You need to have some software that can do that. You need to have someone who is very experienced. If you don’t have a very experienced pathologist reading this test, they’re going to result in tests that are not correct. And that could be an issue.

And so, I think that, if you don’t have the technology to do it, it’s better just not to do it. I think that, when we start changing treatment with this, I think that everyone will open up to it more. I think that it’s very good that the FDA has approved the clonoSEQ test to test for minimal residual disease because I think that’s easy, so the community oncologists can send the samples to Adaptive Biotechnologies.

And they can test us and give our result back. And now, the advantage ofso, that’s, basically, what I would say to these patients. But let me just add something to that. So, basically, if you don’t have it, don’t worry about it. If you really want to have it, and your place doesn’t offer it, you have to go somewhere else because, if where you are, they don’t have it, it’s better that they don’t do it because it’s complicated to get set up. It’s not easy. But now, if you compare flow cytometry to sequencing, so that’s DNA sequencing, DNA sequencing seems to be better.

And so, this clonoSEQ test, the advantage of this test compared to flow cytometry is that, with this test, you can look at different populations of myeloma, within the same patient. So, if you send these tests on diagnosis, they’re going to tell you, okay, 80 percent of the myeloma has this. And then, the rest, 15 percent, looks like this, and 5 percent looks like this.

And it’s going to tell you that. Whereas the flow cytometry doesn’t tell you that. Now, this test can be done, the sequencing, can be done on almost any patient. Flow cytometry can be done in every patient. So, some patients may not be able to do the sequencing, with the new generation of the sequencing test, the clonoSEQ. Every time, they can read more and more patients. But those are the main limitations. The main limitations of flow cytometry is it cannot inform you on the biology of the myeloma, in terms of how many different myelomas are there, sub-myelomas are there in the myeloma.

So, that test cannot inform you of that. But some patients may not be able to do it. Whereas the flow, you can do it in everybody, but it’s not going to tell you about the subpopulations of myeloma. So, those are two tests that are, basically, used for right now.

Andrew Schorr:                     

I take away as sort of the common man here a couple of things. One is, and we’ve said this on so many of our programs. Cherie, I’m sure you agree. First of all, if you’re living with myeloma, I, personally, think you may want to check in or get a second opinion at a major center, whether it’s MD Anderson or one of the others. And I like the full work up. The other thing that’s going on is the testing continues to advance. So, if I got you right, you’re talking about one person having almost little subsets of myeloma with their own blood, right? Not just one myeloma, but different types. So, it would be supersensitive. Then, the question is what does it all mean differently now that you know.

This is like crazy making. So, it’s kind of like, first of all, have a team that you trust. And recognize, thank God, wouldn’t you say, Chereie, that myeloma patients, in your wonderful example, are on a much longer journey now than ever before.

You’re such an example of that. And so, this discussion, you’re kind of flowing with your myeloma. Hopefully, it doesn’t come back, but if it does, the testing is going to be more sophisticated. The treatments are going to be more tailored.

Cherie Rineker:                        

Yes. If I may say, too, when I was first diagnosed, I found out I had multiple myeloma, which I was told was a tradable yet incurable disease, at 44, that’s pretty devastating news. I thought, if I get cancer, you’re going to treat it aggressively. I’m going to go bald for six months or a year, and then, my life goes on. That’s what I thought about cancer. So, to have something that continues on and on is pretty tough to live with. Hopefully, getting to an older age.

And for me, the journey has been both physical healing and emotional healing. And physically, I’ve gotten better and better through the years, now, thankfully, after CAR T especially. But, emotionally, too, that is a lifelong commitment and exercise of trying to stay in the now, trying to stay positive, trying not to have multiple myeloma at the forefront of my thoughts, in everything that I do. And I think MRD-negative has played a huge role for me because it has given me some piece of mind that, even if I’m going to relapse, maybe it will be longer. And, hopefully, I’ll stay in remission long enough for another trial to come along for me. 

Please remember the opinions expressed on Patient Power are not necessarily the views of our sponsors, contributors, partners or Patient Power. Our discussions are not a substitute for seeking medical advice or care from your own doctor. That’s how you’ll get care that’s most appropriate for you.

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